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Thursday, September 27, 2012

chemicals for Consumers

Natural Olive Oil and Palm Oil Soap
  • Soap = sodium salts (RCOO-Na+) / potassium salts (RCOO-K+)  of long-chain fatty acids
  • Alkalis react with fatty acids –> soap
  • Fatty acids = animal fats or vegetable oils
  • Soap preparation: hydrolysing fats or oils under alkaline condition
  • Saponification – alkaline hydrolysis
  • Saponification process – boiling fats / oils with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution or concentrated potassium hydroxide solution to produce glycerol + salts of fatty acids (soap)
  • Saponification steps: 1. Hydrolysis of fats / oils –> glycerol + fatty acids. 2. Neutralisation of fatty acids + concentrated alkali –> soap + water
  • Overall equation: Fats / oils + alkali –> glycerol + soap
  • Sodium chloride – reduces the solubility of soap in water
Liquid soapSolid soap
Sodium hydroxide + saturated oils (coconut oil)Potassium hydroxide + unsaturated oil (sunflower oil / olive oil)
Uses: bathing purposesUses: shaving cream

  • Detergent = sodium salt of sulphonic acid
  • Alkalis react with sulphonic acid –> detergent
  • Common detergent: sodium alkyl sulphate & sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate.
  • Detergent preparation: 2 processes – 1. Sulphonation. 2. Neutralisation.
  • Sulphonation: Petroleum fraction (long chain hydrocarbon compounds) converted into sulphonic acid with the present of concentration sulphuric acid. Water molecule is removed.
  • Neutralisation: sulphonic acid neutralised with sodium hydroxide to form detergent (water molecule is formed).
  • Other type of detergents: 1. Anionic detergent (dishwashing liquid detergent). 2. Cationic detergent (hair conditioner). 3. Non-ionic detergent (car washing detergent).
Cleansing action of soap and detergent
  • Soap and detergent are surfactants. Surfactants are organic compounds that lower the surface tension of a liquid.
  • Surfactants act as emulsifiers and foaming agents.
  • Anion soap consists of carboxylate ion (hydrophilic = soluble in water) and long hydrocarbon tail (hydrophobic = soluble in grease /oils).
  • Anion detergent consists of sulphate ion / sulphonate ion (hydrophilic = soluable in water) and long hydrocarbon tail (hydrophobic = soluble in grease / oils).
The action process
  1. Soap or detergent is added to water.
  2. This has lower the surface tension of water and increases the wetting ability of water.
  3. Hydrophilic part of the anion dissolves in water.
  4. Hydrophobic part dissolves in grease.
  5. Scrubbing helps to pull the grease free and break the grease into small droplets.
  6. These droplets do not coagulate and redeposit on the surface of the cloth. It is because therepulsion between negative charges on the surface.
  7. The droplets are suspended in water forming an emulsion.
  8. Foam produces to float the emulsion.
  9. Rinsing helps to remove these droplets.
The effectiveness of the cleansing action of soap and detergent
Hard water (contain calcium & magnesium ion)Form an insoluble precipitate  = soap scum (formation of soap scum causes wastage of soap)Detergent is effective cleaner. Form soluble substances = calcium or magnesium salts (do not form scum)
Soft water (do not contain calcium & magnesium ion)Soap is effective cleaner.Detergent is effective cleaner.
Acidic water (contain hydrogen ion)Form insoluble long-chain fatty acids (reduces the amount of soap used for cleaning)Detergent is effective cleaner. Form soluble substances (Do not form scum)
EnvironmentSoap is biodegradableSoap is non-biodegradable

Additives in detergent
Biological enzymeRemove protein stainsAmylase, lipase & protease
Foam control agentControl foaming in detergentSilicones
BuilderEnhance the surfactant efficiencySodium phosphate
FillerMake the solid detergent dry and enable the liquid detergent to be poured easilySodium silicate
FragranceAdd fragrance-
Optical brightenerAdd brightness by convert UV radiation to blue light and whitenessFluorescent dye
Stabilising agentLower the production of foamSilicones
Suspension agentPrevent the dirt particles removed from redepositing onto cleaned fabricsSodium carboxymethylcellulose
Whitening agentBleach stainsSodium hypochlorite

Grapeseed Oil Nutritional Information
Food Additives
Food additive = a natural / synthetic substance that is added to food to
  • prevent spoilage
  • extend food storage life
  • improve food appearance
  • improve food taste
  • improve food texture
A. Preservatives
  • slow down / prevent the growth of microorganisms / bacteria / fungi
  • extend food storage life
PreservativesFunctionsExampleSide effect
SaltDraws the water out of the cells of microorganisms. Retards the growth of microorganisms.Salted vegetablesIncrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases
SugarDraws the water out of the cells of microorganisms. Retards the growth of microorganisms.Fruit jamTooth decay, diabetes and obesity
VinegarInhibits the growth of microorganisms.Pickled cucumber
Sodium nitrite / sodium nitrateSlows down the growth of microorganisms. Stabilise red colour in meats.SausageCarcinogenic
Benzoic acid / sodium benzoateSlows down the growth of microorganisms.Tomato sauce
Sulphur dioxideSlows down the growth of microorganisms.Grape juiceAsthma and allergies
Alternative ways: freezing and refrigeration
Food Additives
B. Antioxidant
  • prevent oxidation (causes rancid fats and brown fruits)
AntioxidantFunctionsExampleSide effect
Vitamin EPrevent oils from turns rancidPalm oil & sunflower oilNo
Vitamin CPreserve the colour of fruit juice and the formation of nitrosaminesFruit juice & cured meatNo
Sodium citrateStop rancidity in fatsIce-cream-
BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole) BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene)Retard rancidity in fats, oils and oil-containing foodsMargarine & cerealCarcinogenic

Food Additives
C. Flavouring
  • improve the taste
  • improve the smell
  • restore taste loss due to food process
FlavouringFunctionsExampleSide effect
MSG (monosodium glutamate)Bring out the flavorSalad dressing & canned soupHeadache, thirsty, nausea & chest pain.
Aspartame (non-sugar sweetener)Sweeten food (about 180 – 200 times than sugar)Soft drinks & diet drinksIncrease the risk of leukaemia, cancer and neurological problems
Synthetic essences (esters)Produce artificial flavours = natural flavour. Cheaper to use than the real fruitsMethyl butanoate (apple flavour) & octyl ethanoate (orange flavour)-
Food Additives
D. Stabilisers
  • prevent an emulsion from separating out
Monoglycerides of fatty acidsMix oil and waterIce-cream, chewing gum, beverages, whipped topping and margarine
Acacia gumMix two liquids that do not mix together. Forms an emulsion.Marshmallow, gumdrop, edible glitter, carbonated drink syrup & gummy candies
LecithinReduces viscosity. Replaces more expensive ingredients. Controls sugar crystallisation and the flow properties of chocolate. Helps in the homogeneous mixing of ingredients. Uses as a coating.Margarine, dough, candy bar & cocoa powder
GelatinMixture of peptides and proteins of collagen extracted from the boiled bones, connective tissues, organs and some intestines of animalsFruit jam, jelly babies, shells of pharmaceutical capsules, margarine & yogurt

Food Additives
E. Thickeners
  • thicken food
  • give the food dense, smooth and uniform texture
ThickenersFunctionsExampleSide effect
Acacia gumReduces the surface tension of liquid. Leads to increased fizzing. Mix two liquids that do not mix together. Forms an emulsion.Marshmallow, gumdrop, edible glitter, carbonated drink syrup & gummy candies-
GelatinMixture of peptides and proteins of collagen extracted from the boiled bones, connective tissues, organs and some intestines of animalsFruit jam, jelly babies, shells of pharmaceutical capsules, margarine & yogurt-
PectinDietary fiberFruit jam-
StarchThicken foodSoup, custard, pudding, noodles and  pasta-
Modified starchIncrease their visco-stabilityInstant soups & cheese sauce granules-
Xanthan gumHelps to prevent oil separation. Increase in the viscosity of a liquidSauce & salad dressingAllergies

Food Additives
F. Dyes or Colourings
  • add colour vanished during food processing
  • replace colour vanished during food processing
  • make food appear more attractive
Dyes / ColouringsFunctionExamplesSide effect
Tartrazine E102 / Sunset yellow E110 (artificial dye)Yellow azo dyeOrange drinks, sweet & custard powderHyperactive in children
Brilliant blue  FCF Blue 1 (artificial dye)Blue triphenyl dyeIce-cream, beverages, jellies & blue raspberries flavoured product.Allergic
Carmosine E122/ Azorubine (artificial dye)Red azo dyeSweet, jellies & confectionsCarcinogenic & allergic
Anthocyanin (natural dye – red grape, red cabbages, sweet potatoes and tomatoes)Natural red colouringIce-cream & sweet-
Carotenoids / saffron (natural dye – carrots, sweet potatoes and palm oil)Natural red colouringCooking oil & confections-
PaprikaNatural red colouringDessert food-
Butterfly pea (clitoria ternatea)A blue food dyeDessert food & confections-
Pandan (pandanus amaryllifolius)A green food dyeNoodles & confections-
A. Traditional medicine
Source: living thing – animals, plants & minerals
GarlicTo treat colds and asthma, lowers the blood pressure, antibioticsEaten raw or cooked
CocaineAnaestheticDrug is processed from the leave
GinsengStrengthen the bodyBoiled with water to produce juice
QuinineTreat malariaProduced from the bark
GingerTreat stomach ache, treat diarrhea, prevent fluBoiled with water to produce juice
PeppermintIncrease the body metabolism, treat nausea, indigestion and flu, to treat headaches, muscles and nerve painBoiled with water to produce juice or taken in capsule
Eurycoma longifolia(Tongkat Ali)Treat wounds, relieve headaches, to lower the body temperature, increase male virilityDried and boiled with water to produce juice, served as a hot drink / beverage or made into tablets / capsules
Tamarind (Asam Jawa)Reduce malaria fever, reduce cough, medicine for gastric problemDried and served as a cold drink
Lemon grass (Serai)Mosquito repellent, treat cough, headaches and stomach achesMade into juice
Centella asiatica (Daun pegaga)Help maintain youthfulness, relieve hypertension, aid wound healingEaten raw or made into juice
Green teaPrevent breast, stomach and skin cancers, improve mental alertness, lower the cholesterol levelsDrink as beverage
Aloe vera (Lidah buaya)Heal wounds and skin disease, laxative, treat diabetes, osteoarthritis and sunburnEaten cooked or leaves produce juice and rub on body
B. Modern medicine
Source: synthesised by scientists
I. Analgesics
Common analgesicsUsesSide effect
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) (cannot be given to pregnant mother and children)Relieve pain, reduce inflammation, reduce ability of blood to clotStomach (internal) bleeding, kidney damage, ulceration
Paracetamol (can be given to children)Relieve mild to moderate pain, does not irritate stomach or cause internal bleedingSkin rashes, blood disorders, acute inflammation of the pancreas, liver damage (overdose)
Codeine (synthesised from morphine / opium)Relieve headache and used in cough medicinesDrowsiness, irregular heartbeat, hallucination, lead addiction, depression and nausea